Essay on Victimization in New Zealand Sample

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Victimization in New Zealand

Introduction

The following essay will be discussing about victimology upon women especially in the country of Australia. The essay will further discuss about the conditions of women and the crime they are facing in New Zealand. Victimization is the process of being victimized of becoming a victim, which takes into account the rates of people being victims, the processes that are involved in victimizing people, incidences and prevalence of being a victim. It analyzes the rates of people being victims (Toomey et al., 2013). Victimology is the study of victimization that includes the effects on the psychological conditions of individuals the fear of crime between the two genders of the society and analyses the relationships between the offender and the victim.

It also includes the relationships that are prominent between the victims and the justice system of the country in which the victim is a citizen. These include the courts, police stations, correctional centers and officials. The discipline also analyses the connections that has established between the victims and other social groups and other institutions like the social movements that have occurred in the country and the businesses that are carried out by different forms of media (Fattah, 2016). However, the study of victimology is not only confined to the study of the victims who have been facing crime and violence in the societies but also takes into account other forms of violation that are caused in the lives of human.

Gender Differences in Workplace

Gender differences in workplace has evolved from several factors that are present in different societies and the practice of these factors by the people, which further influences the behaviors and cultures of the young and new generations in the society. A study on the number of employees in a police department was conducted by (Butler, Winfree & Newbold, 2003). The research states that the profession of policing or to be an active part of the executive force responsible for the protection of people in a society, is described as the most “gendered” profession in the United States, where the percentage of male employees has subsided the percentage of the females in the workforce. The term “occupational segregation”, which includes choice of profession according to the gender of the people, can be described in the best possible way by analysis of the ratio of employees in a particular police department (Delfgaauw et al., 2013). The study had closely examined the possible differences in the gender among the workforce of the police department in the country of New Zealand.

The study further analyzes the impression of the profession of policing among all the members of police departments in New Zealand, which include both male and female employees. These responses are collected and analyzed based on different factors of psychosocial wellbeing such as the environment of the workplace; level of job satisfaction among the employees as well as the support had fairness the employees receive based on the genders from their supervisors and other higher officers in the department (Stanko, Hanmer & Radford, 2013).. The other variables also included the social self of the employees such as the race and ethnicity, age, tenure of their services, locations they are usually placed in and types of assignments that are provided. The responses from all the employees were analyzed and it has been seen that both the male as well as the female employees had similar and positive feelings and impression towards their jobs and workplace, yet these were due to some forces that have been imposed on them, especially in the case of the female employees (Coates, 2015).

Influence of media on gender and crime

The Western societies are more influenced and interested in the dealings with crime and justice and ranging from their books, magazines, films other medias involved in communication to the conversations of the people in their everyday lives, people are more engaged in crime “talks”. A study by (Holtzman & Sharpe, 2014) states that second wave feminism that was brought about in the western societies and in the second world countries of the world during the 1960s had brought with it expansion and growth of the mass media as well as academic interests of the people on influence of media on gender and crime (Chancer, 2014).

The study is conducted on the relationship between various medias and its impression on the crimes that are occurring within societies such as domestic violence, rape, kidnapping, adultery and female offenders and victims. The authors have then stated the media odf communication as the gendered institution and have further analyzed the impact of the same on the people in the society. The discipline of cultural criminology has been able to make important contributions in the societies of the world and to the understanding of the people as functional and visual portrayals of crime, gender and media (Callanan & Rosenberger, 2015).

The study goes on to discuss a more critical topic related to the manners of the people by which sex, sex, media, and wrongdoing converge have “reality” repercussions, influencing strategies and also observations. Therefore, additionally investigate is required on the media’s capability to challenge conventional generalizations about the connections among wrongdoing and sex as well as ethnicity, race, and class as an approach to urge more dynamic reactions to gendered brutality and unlawful actions that do harm people and the society to the maximum level.

Media, Gender and Fear of Crime

A few studies and researches have discussed about the gender, race and ethnicity that have manifested the differences in the effects of crime related media on the fear of crime among individuals. Gilchrist et al. (1998) conducted a study that have examined the relationships between various forms of medias that are directly related to different types of violence and crimes and effect of fear of crime among different individuals within a particular society, especially among the population of the males and females. Besides them respondents from different social, racial and ethnical background s were also considered for the study (Davies, Francis & Geer, 2017).

The authors found that there were very little differences among the male and the females even those who belonged to different social and racial backgrounds. The study concluded that though there were many respondents and victims form the white racial backgrounds, the messages carrying risk behavior and fear had similar pattern and influenced all the respondents equally (Lee, 2013).

Gender and Fear of Crime

In the recent years, both the academic experts and the policy makers such as the government, justice systems of various nations and the states have gained much interested in the fear of crime among different individuals. Numerous studies as well as crime surveys conducted in different parts of Great Britain and Scotland have concluded that fear had continued to encroach upon the people as years are passing by. (Friton, 2014) are of the view that professional and empirical generated data that has been collected by means of surveys have shown that there are quite a great differences between the fear rates that have been expressed by men and women. These differences have further been contrasted with the objectives of victimizing others, the ratios of victimization and those that have continuously been stereotyped by media. It has been found that women have referred to be more afraid of crime and violence compared to men, irrespective of their social and cultural backgrounds. The research has thereby encountered the paradox of “fearful men and fearless women” (Gilchrist et al., 1998).

Gender Roles and Differences

In addition to the biological differences and behaviors among the genders, four basic and most important factors lead to these differences. These include the psychological explanations that define the behavior patterns among different individuals and those have been linked to genders. There are great consistencies in the standards that define appropriate role and behavior of people according to their genders, which is not only prevalent in the country of New Zealand but also in other countries of the world (Wattis, 2017).

The males in the societies are expected to be more independent, competitive and assertive in nature, whereas the females are considered and expected to be more kind, caring, sensitive, supportive, passive and dominant in nature. However, these behaviors have changed during the last two decades in the first world and second world nations of the world, but there have been very little changes in the developing countries (Oakley, 2016).

Gender Differences in Development

Among the differences in the males and the females have been presumed very highly in the societies, there are a few that is actually real. Among the rest of them, some are mythical in nature while the others are found to be inconsistent (Eagly, 2013). The societies have brought some of the most differences in the behavior of these genders. In case of development, girls are more advanced physically and neurologically but are vulnerable to many diseases and abnormalities that come due to heredity factors. However, the girls excel in verbal skills earlier than the boys do; the later have excellent skills in visual, special as well as in math.

Coates (2015) states that there are more doubtful gender differences are contrasted in action level, reliance, tentativeness, exploratory movement, and weakness to stretch. There are no sexual orientation contrasts in friendliness, similarity, accomplishment, confidence, or verbal threatening vibe. Despite the fact that distinctions exist, keep in mind that the overlapping between the distributions of skills are constantly more noteworthy than the contrasts between them. Moreover, taking note of the presence of the distinctions does not reveal to us why they exist. Plainly young women and young men have a wide range of encounters and open doors as they create which might prompt dissimilar results or feature existing contrasts (Lindsey, 2015).

Gender Roles in Societies

The role of a man and a woman in the public eye is impacted by an assortment of variables. These components change with the location, religion, culture, atmosphere, historical beliefs and practices, living standards, and encounters, over the globe (Alesina, Guiliano & Nunn, 2013). In this way, gender role in the public areas are characterized as the role depicted by a person as combination of different factors or some of the kind that again depends upon the living conditions of the people. These components can be sorted as jobs in view of the arrangement – male, female or a mix, and their jobs in light of physical character or potentially sexual and mental introduction, either because of social holding or because of self-inclinations (Kimbrough et al., 2013).

For example, men are keener to perform physically intense exercises like, working in overwhelming businesses, and resistance administrations while females perform household works like bringing up youngsters, weaving and cooking (Andersen & Collins, 2015). While these jobs are characterized and for the most part arranged in numerous social orders, this refinement ends up rarer in created social orders like the US or Western Europe. Giving instruction, family work, taking care of the families and performing proficient duties, societal issues are the different obligations or exercises in a typical social structure. These jobs were isolated based on sex, yet now it is even more a decision and in view of the enthusiasm of a person. Notwithstanding, there are numerous social orders on the planet which keep on sticking to the conventional sexual orientation jobs (Connell, 2014). A female is normally expected, obliged to do, or inspired by family work, kid care and instruction, leaving proficient and social jobs more for the men in societies.

Conclusion

Victimization is that the method of being misused of changing into a victim, that takes into consideration the rates of individuals being victims, the processes that are concerned in victimizing folks, incidences and prevalence of being a victim. It analyzes the rates of individuals being victims. Victimology is that the study of victimization that has the consequences on the psychological conditions of people the concern of crime between the two genders of the society and analyses the relationships between the wrongdoer and therefore the victim. Gender variations in geographic point has evolved from many factors that have evolved from several factors presented and practiced in numerous societies and therefore observe of those factors by the folks, that additional influences the behaviors and cultures of the young and new generations within the society. The Western societies have been influenced and are curious about the dealings with crime and justice. These discussions and practices have ranged highly in the form of books, magazines, films alternative medias concerned in communication to the conversations of the folks in their everyday lives, folks that are additional engaged in crime “talks”.

References

Alesina, A., Giuliano, P., & Nunn, N. (2013). On the origins of gender roles: Women and the plough. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 128(2), 469-530.

Andersen, M., & Collins, P. H. (2015). Race, class, & gender: An anthology. Nelson Education.

Butler, E., Winfree, L., & Newbold, G. (2003). Policing and Gender: Male and Female Perspectives among Members of the New Zealand Police. Police Quarterly, 6(3), 298-329. doi: 10.1177/1098611103254316

Callanan, V., & Rosenberger, J. S. (2015). Media, gender, and fear of crime. Criminal Justice Review, 40(3), 322-339.

Chancer, L. (2014). Media, Gender, Sex, and Crime. The Oxford Handbook Of Gender, Sex, And Crime Edited By Rosemary Gartner And Bill Mccarthy, 1-21.

Coates, J. (2015). Women, men and language: A sociolinguistic account of gender differences in language. Routledge.

Coates, J. (2015). Women, men and language: A sociolinguistic account of gender differences in language. Routledge.

Connell, R. W. (2014). Gender and power: Society, the person and sexual

Davies, P., Francis, P., & Greer, C. (Eds.). (2017). Victims, Crime and Society: An Introduction. Sage.

Delfgaauw, J., Dur, R., Sol, J., & Verbeke, W. (2013). Tournament incentives in the field: Gender differences in the workplace. Journal of Labor Economics, 31(2), 305-326.

Eagly, A. H. (2013). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation.

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Fattah, E. A. (Ed.). (2016). Towards a critical victimology. Springer.

Friton, J. (2014). Managing Rapeability: Women’s Perceptions and Negotiations of the Fear of Sexual Assault.

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Lee, M. (2013). Inventing fear of crime. Willan.

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Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., Diaz, R. M., Card, N. A., & Russell, S. T. (2013). Gender- nonconforming lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: school victimization and young adult psychosocial adjustment.

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